Sustainable Biofuels and Other Related Bio-Products from Palm Cultivations
Department of Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia
Various kinds of palm trees are grown in the tropical regions of the world that provide edible oils for food consumption. They have in common in providing edible oils from the nuts and some from the mesocarp such as oil palm. More than 400 mills in Malaysia have provided more than sufficient energy from the biomass in processing the fruits to crude palm oil. The biomass are the mesocarp fibres, shells or endocarp, empty fruit bunches and palm oil mill effluents. One option of treatment of this biomass is to convert into bio-oil, bio-char, bio-adhesives and methyl ester. Recent research using microwave processing of biomass and biodiesel are given in this paper.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016
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