Vision based error detection for 3D printing processes
University of Stuttgart, IRIS, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany
3D printers became more popular in the last decade, partly because of the expiration of key patents and the supply of affordable machines. The origin is located in rapid prototyping. With Additive Manufacturing (AM) it is possible to create physical objects from 3D model data by layer wise addition of material. Besides professional use for prototyping and low volume manufacturing they are becoming widespread amongst end users starting with the so called Maker Movement. The most prevalent type of consumer grade 3D printers is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM, also Fused Filament Fabrication FFF). This work focuses on FDM machinery because of their widespread occurrence and large number of open problems like precision and failure. These 3D printers can fail to print objects at a statistical rate depending on the manufacturer and model of the printer. Failures can occur due to misalignment of the print-bed, the print-head, slippage of the motors, warping of the printed material, lack of adhesion or other reasons. The goal of this research is to provide an environment in which these failures can be detected automatically. Direct supervision is inhibited by the recommended placement of FDM printers in separate rooms away from the user due to ventilation issues. The inability to oversee the printing process leads to late or omitted detection of failures. Rejects effect material waste and wasted time thus lowering the utilization of printing resources. Our approach consists of a camera based error detection mechanism that provides a web based interface for remote supervision and early failure detection. Early failure detection can lead to reduced time spent on broken prints, less material wasted and in some cases salvaged objects.
© Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016
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