Effect of Calcium Additive on the Crystallization of Struvite
1 University of Pembangunan National “Veteran” Jawa Timur, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia
2 Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, Semarang 50275, Indonesia
3 Department of Chemical Engineering, UNTAG University in Semarang, Bendhan Dhuwur Campus, Semarang 50233, Indonesia
Crystallization of struvite [MgNH4PO4.6H2O] may lead to the deposition of scale which may create significant problems in the process pipes, pumps and other industrial equipment. However, struvite precipitation can be benefited for phosphate recovery for use of fertilizer. The aim at the present work was to investigate calcium additive on struvite precipitation. The experiment was carried out in a batch mode using a 1-liter Pyrex glass vessel mechanically agitated for 200 rpm. The scale-forming solution was prepared for mixing solutions to MgCl2 and NH4H2PO4 with Mg+2 , NH4+ and PO4-3 in a molar ratio of 1: 1:1. The crystallization temperature of 30 and 40 °C was selected. Ca was added into the crystallizing solution to chloride dihydrate 0.4M (CaCl2•2H2O). Then each solution was pH adjusted to 9 by addition of KOH. The crystals obtained were characterized using SEM for morphology, EDS for elemental analysis as well as XRPD Rietveld analysis for crystaline phases. The induction periods varied from 10 to 90 min, which means that the struvite crystals began forming 10 to 90 min after mixing of the solution. It was observed that the Ca additive may inhibit the struvite crystallization. SEM analysis revealed that the struvite crystals obtained were predominantly of irregular prismatic morphology. Furthermore, the EDS pattern revealed that the elemental composition of the crystals consisted of Ca, Cl, S Mg, N, and P, providing that many crystalline phase found in the crystals such as Gypsum, CaCl2, struvite, struvite-(K) and sylvite. It was observed that the Ca additive appeared to inhibit the struvite crystallization.
Key words: Ca-additives / SEM-EDS analysis / struvite and XRPD Rietveld analysis
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