Steam-Enhanced Extraction Experiments, Simulations and Field Studies for Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Removal: A Review
1 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia
2 Department of Engineering, Razak School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Kuala Lumpur, 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
a Corresponding author : email@example.com
Experiments, simulations and field studies for dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) removal have demonstrated successful recovery through steam-enhanced extraction. Steam-enhanced extraction is an innovative technology for soil and groundwater remediation to remove as much contamination as possible. Most of researchers study the main DNAPL recovery mechanisms such as physical displacement by vaporization, evaporation and condensation, reduction in interfacial tension and DNAPL viscosity influenced by temperature. Other removal mechanism such as steam distillation and steam stripping also has been studied. The removal of DNAPL using steam-enhanced extraction shall be investigated to identify, acquire, analyze, visualize, and evaluate the effectiveness of the remediation. Several parameters can be controlled to justify the successful of the remediation. A comprehensive understanding of the subsurface environment, multiphase fluid flow and the physical processes is required to prevent remediation failure. Thus, it will avoid continuous contamination of the subsurface environment. The researcher can quantify the reduction in contamination remediation and acquire high quality data sets to validate future numerical model. Aim of this paper is to review and to summarize the existing laboratory experiment, simulations and field studies from other researchers regarding steam-enhanced extraction for dense non-aqueous phase liquid removal.
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